Board of Trustees

Our trustees serve three-year terms, renewable to nine years. This process assures continuity of input and the presence of strong civic leaders guiding our foundation.


E. Alex Paris, III, Chairman

E. Alex Paris, III is the third generation at the helm of the family business, Alex E. Paris Contracting, in Smith Township.

A lifelong resident of Washington County, Alex graduated from Avella High School and earned a Bachelor of Science degree from West Liberty University.

Alex is a board member of the National Utility Contractors Association of Pennsylvania. In both 2001 and 2009, he was named Contractor of the Year by the PA Utility Contractors Association.

In 2015 Alex received the WCCF’s Richard L. White Excellence Award for Board Service, in great part for serving as a volunteer project manager for the rehabilitation of the Samuel T. Brownlee House, the current home of the WCCF. In 2019 his firm, Alex E. Paris Contracting Company, received the WCCF’s Charles C. Keller Excellence Award for Corporate Philanthropy.

Alex also serves on the boards of the West Liberty University Foundation, Washington Health System, and Washington Hospital Foundation, as well the Meadowcroft Village Advisory Committee. He is a former Board Member of the Avella School District.

He and his wife, Valerie, reside in Avella. They are members of the Foundation’s Family of Founders and Golden Oak Guild recognition societies.

Michael S. Anderson, Vice Chairman

Michael Anderson started his career at Houston & Associates as an intern in 2003 while attending Washington & Jefferson College. Michael graduated from Washington & Jefferson College in 2004 with a B.A. in Accounting. Upon graduation, he joined Houston & Associates full time as a staff accountant learning the technical side of business and individual taxation while working on audits of not-for-profit organizations, yellow book, and employee benefit plans. Michael continued working there for 14 years, building client relationships and managing the operations of their Washington, PA office.

In 2017, he and another CPA opened Imperial Tax South Hills. Michael manages the Imperial Tax South Hills office where he focuses his practice in comprehensive tax planning for individuals and businesses, preparing individual, corporate, not-for-profit and small business returns. Michael also specializes in accounting system software implementation and consulting with small business owners who are looking to start up or grow their existing companies. He is a member of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, the Pennsylvania Institute of Certified Public Accountants and is enrolled in the Quickbooks Pro Advisor Program.

He enjoys volunteering for various local charitable organizations including counting votes for the annual Washington’s Got Talent competition and serving on the board of Washington County Health Partners from 2009-2017, where he also held the position of Treasurer. Michael also serves as a coordinator for Aspect Foundation, a nonprofit organization that provides students from around the world the opportunity to participate in an educational and cultural exchange program in the United States.

Michael resides in Washington, PA with his wife, Kelly, and their great dane, Oliver. Michael and Kelly are members of the Foundation’s Golden Oak Guild recognition society.

Todd M. James, Treasurer

Todd was appointed to serve as the EQT’s Chief Accounting Officer in November 2019.

Previously, Todd was the Corporate Controller and Chief Accounting Officer of L.B. Foster Company. Prior to that he was Senior Director, Technical Accounting and Financial Reporting at Rice Energy from December 2014 through its acquisition by EQT in November 2017 and through February 2018. Prior to joining Rice Energy, Todd was a Senior Manager, Assurance at PricewaterhouseCoopers, where he worked from August 2005 to November 2014.

Todd is a certified public accountant and holds a Master’s Degree in Public Accountancy, a Master’s Certificate, Forensic Accounting and Fraud Investigation, and a Bachelor of Science in Accounting from West Virginia University.

He lives in Washington with his wife and young children.

Barbara A. Graham, Secretary

Barbara Graham is the senior member of Peacock Keller’s School Law Group and a member of its Employment Law Group. Barbara performed both her undergraduate and graduate work at the University of Pittsburgh, graduating Magna Cum Laude with a Bachelor of Arts in Political Science in 1980. Her Juris Doctorate from its School of Law followed in 1983.

A member of the Pennsylvania and Washington County Bar Associations, Barbara also remains an active member of the Pennsylvania School Board Solicitors Association, having served as its President in 1996, and frequently presents to School Board members and solicitors. She has also been a contributing editor to various publications issued by the Pennsylvania School Boards Association. In 2013, Barbara received the President’s Award for Distinguished Career Achievement from the Solicitor’s Association, in recognition for her longstanding service and commitment to the organization as well as fellow solicitors.

Barbara resides in Peters Township with her husband, Darryl, and their son Matthew. She is also the proud mother of a daughter, Jessica.

Megan M. Chicone

Megan Chicone is the owner of Megan Chicone-State Farm Insurance Agency with two locations in Peters Township and Robinson, PA. She is a third generation agent. Prior to opening her first agency in 2011, Megan worked as a corporate marketing representative for State Farm.

Born and raised in Washington, PA, Megan is passionate about giving back to her community. Megan is currently a board member for Leadership Washington County and the Peters Township Chamber of Commerce. She recently served as past Chairman of POWER and Board Member of the Washington County Chamber of Commerce. Additionally, Megan has volunteered with local charities including the American Cancer Society, Washington City Mission, Junior Achievement of Western PA, and Dress for Success. She is an alumna of Leadership Washington County (2012). In 2014, Megan received the Carol Foley Memorial Award and was named Volunteer of the Year for the Washington branch of the American Cancer Society. She was also named as one of Whirl Magazine’s “13 under 30” in 2013.

A graduate of the University of Pittsburgh, Megan resides in Bridgeville with her husband, Nathan, and son, Madoc. Megan and Nathan are members of the Foundation’s Golden Oak Guild recognition society.

W. Taylor Frankovitch

Taylor Frankovitch, an attorney with Bowles Rice, focuses his work in the areas of energy, commercial law, real estate and litigation. He is admitted to practice in Pennsylvania and West Virginia.

He earned his undergraduate degree from Washington & Jefferson College, a Master of Laws degree from the Duke University School of Law, his law degree from the University of Pittsburgh School of Law, and his M.B.A. from the University of Pittsburgh, Katz Graduate School of Business.

He is a member of the Bowles Rice Executive Committee and Recruiting Committee. Taylor is a member of the Leadership Development Class XXIII, and has served on the Washington Advisory Board for Junior Achievement and on the Community Impact Panel of the United Way of Washington County.

He lives in Allegheny County with his wife and children.

Sheila J. Gombita

As the Executive Director of the Washington County Transportation Authority, Sheila manages an annual operating budget of $7 million and oversees public transportation programs which provide over 300,000 trips per year. In addition to supervision 15 employees, she negotiates contracts with two subcontractors, and convenes nonprofit community organizations to address public transit challenges in the county. She has held this position since 2001.

From 1993 to 2001 she was employed at the United Way of Washington County, first as a Program Director/Information & Referral Specialist and then as Vice President.

Sheila graduated from Chartiers-Houston High School and earned a Bachelor’s Degree in Psychology from Edinboro University. She has served on multiple nonprofit boards and committees, including the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, Southwest Corner Workforce Development Board, Transitional Employment Consultants, Leadership Washington County, Community Action Southwest (now Blueprints) Head Start Council, PA Public Transportation Association, PA Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee, and Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission.

She lives in Washington with her husband and teenage son.

Robert C. Griffin

Bob is the Executive Director of the Redevelopment Authority of the County of Washington and was formerly employed by Waller Corporation where he served as Vice President from 1995 to 2005.

Bob has devoted much of his adult life to service in support of many important community causes. He served on the steering committee that created Leadership Washington County which remains a thriving organization dedicated to cultivating leaders who are skilled, knowledgeable and committed to improving the quality of life in Washington County. Bob’s deep commitment to civic purpose enterprise in western Pennsylvania is far reaching and includes past service as President of the Board of Directors of Blueprints, member of the Washington Health System Board of Trustees and President of the Washington NAACP. Bob is the recipient of the 2019 Washington County Community Foundation, Louis E. Waller Humanitarian Award, the 2006 NAACP Human Rights Award and the 2008 Washington & Jefferson College, Office of Multicultural Affairs, Martin Luther King, Jr. Service Award for Economic Development.

He holds an undergraduate degree in Public Administration from the University of Pittsburgh and earned a Master’s Degree in 2001 from the University’s Graduate School of Public and International Affairs. Bob currently serves on the Board of the Washington Health System Foundation, Washington County Council on Economic Development, Washington County Historical Society, World Series Tournaments, Mel Blount Youth Leadership Initiative, Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission and is an Advisory Board member of Igniate, the Washington Area Business Incubator. He and his wife Cindy reside in Washington and have three young adult sons.

​Chad A. Griffith

Chad A. Griffith serves as General Counsel to Northern Biogas. He previously held the role of Chief Operating Officer at CNX Resources where he was responsible for the daily management of the company's asset base and safe and effective execution of its operational plan. Prior to that position, he served as Vice President, Commercial, Vice President of Marketing, Director of Marketing, and Director of Diversified Business Units.

Chad earned his undergraduate degree from Washington & Jefferson College, holds a bachelor’s degree in physics from Frostburg State University, a law degree from West Virginia University College of Law, and an M.B.A. from Carnegie Mellon University’s Tepper School of Business.

He is a licensed attorney in Maryland and licensed, but inactive, in West Virginia.

He has not served on any charity boards, but his wife is a current Board member for the Washington County Humane Society.

Chad and his wife live in Washington with their children, who attend the Trinity School District.

Tammy L. Hardy

Tammy is the Vice President of Hardy Enterprises, which specializes in managing and owning real estate as well as making investments in small businesses.

Prior to working at Hardy Enterprises, Tammy worked for Alcoa for 20 years in a variety of positions including treasury manager, procurement director, and manager of corporate analysis.

She earned a Bachelors in Computer Systems and Business Administration from Gove City College and a Masters in Industrial Administration from Carnegie Mellon University.

She is the Past President of the Pittsburgh Chapter of the Alcoa Women’s Network and was a board member for Carnegie Mellon’s Management Game. She has served on the boards of Leadership Washington and the Peters Township Chamber of Commerce, and has also been involved with the Washington Hospital. Tammy was recently inducted into the Grove City College Athletic Hall of Fame.

She lives in McMurray with her husband and children.

Dr. Geraldine M. Jones

Dr. Geraldine M. Jones is the former President of California University of Pennsylvania.

She graduated from California State College in 1972 and earned her master’s degree at California in 1980. Her career in education began in the Albert Gallatin School District, where she worked as a second grade teacher. Upon returning to California in 1974, she served as Program Director for Upward Bound for 20 years and as Chair of the Department of Academic Development Services for 11 years. She was Associate Dean of the College of Education and Human Services for two years before serving as Dean from 2000-2008. In July 2008, she was named Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs, positions she held until being appointed as acting University President.

A member of the Cal U Alumni Association Board of Directors, Geraldine has received numerous honors, including the Cal U Alumni Association's John R. Gregg Award for Loyalty and Service, the Black Alumni Association's Outstanding Service Award, and the Community Service Award given by the Minority Students Association at Penn State Fayette. In 2010 Jones was one of 50 “Women of Excellence” honored by the New Pittsburgh Courier, one of the oldest and most prestigious black newspapers in the United States.

Dedicated to her faith, Geraldine is a lifelong member of Mt. Zion AME Church of Brownsville, where she has been the church pianist since age 14.

Geraldine and her husband Jeffrey have two adult daughters and three grandchildren. Geraldine and Jeffrey are members of the Foundation’s Golden Oak Guild recognition society.

​ Mary Ellen Jutca

Mary Ellen graduated from Immaculate Conception High School and Villanova University. She was a star athlete in high school and college.

She taught in the Trinity School District, retiring in 2018, and was involved in the Trinity Mock Trial Team.

She does not currently sit on any nonprofit Boards but is involved with the Washington-Greene Sports Hall of Fame, the PA Sports Hall of Fame, Washington Christian Outreach, Hunger Free America and the Associates of Divine Providence.

She and her husband Alan live in Washington and attend St James Parish (formerly Immaculate Conception Church). They have four grown children. Mary Ellen’s father was James Boylan, a former Director of Washington Financial, who owned Lange’s Department Stores.

Debra E. Keefer

Debra Keefer retired from the Mon Valley Regional Chamber of Commerce, where she served as Executive Director from 1997 to 2018. She earned an Associate’s Degree from Robert Morris College and a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Liberal Studies from California University of Pa. Her work experience spans 45 years in the Mon Valley. Prior to her position at the Chamber of Commerce, she held administrative support positions in manufacturing, engineering, sales and human resources. She serves as Administrator of the Charleroi Community Park Trustees after retirement, and manages Chamber owned properties.

Deb is on the Board of Diversified Human Services, a division of SPHS, and the Belle Vernon Area Rotary Club.

Born and raised in Rostraver Township, she was married to the late Robert Keefer for 42 years and has a son, Benjamin, also of Rostraver Township. She loves walking, kayaking, theater and live music. She is a living organ donor and is an advocate for organ donation and awareness for CORE (Center for Organ Recovery and Education).

Lars U. Lange

Attorney Lars Lange is a native of Berlin, Germany and lives on a small farm near Marianna, PA.

In addition to his law degree from the University of Pittsburgh, he earned a bachelor degree in Mining Engineering from Penn State University, and a Master’s Degree in International Business Management from Point Park University.

In addition to his work as an attorney, he was worked as a coal miner and underground mine supervisor in West Virginia and Pennsylvania, engaged in merger and acquisition work in Germany and Australia, imported and sold high tech products from Europe and was an operator of a retail business and a landlord in Washington, Pennsylvania.

His legal work has focused largely on those areas where his real word experiences can be most beneficial, such as land, oil and gas, mining operations and regulation, business formation and contracts, and international business transactions and landlord/tenant issues.

He is a member of the National Ski Patrol and a volunteer patroller at Seven Springs, an assistant secretary of the Rotary Club of Washington, PA, a member of the Marianna PA Public Library, and active member of the Washington and Allegheny County Bar Associations through which he is also involved in pro bono activities. In addition, he recently took on a position as a township supervisor in West Bethlehem Township.

Kim A. Mariscotti

Kim earned her Bachelor’s Degree from California University.

She and her husband own two businesses in California, Mariscotti Funeral Home and Mariscotti Insurance, and several rental properties.

Kim is an active member of the California Rotary Club and participates in various community events.

She and her husband live in California with their children.

James H. McCune, Past Chairman

James H. McCune is of counsel to the law firm of Bowles Rice.

Jim is a graduate of Kent State University and the West Virginia University College of Law, where he served on the editorial staff of the West Virginia Law Review.

He is a former Washington County Solicitor, a former Board member of the United Way of Washington County and a past President of the local Red Cross.

As a member of the Washington County Bar Association Jim has provided hundreds of hours of community service through his coaching of mock trial teams, has chaired the Continuing Legal Education Committee for over 15 years, and has volunteered many times to present law related programs for the public at the annual six-week People’s Law School program. Since its creation in 1989, Jim has also served as a trustee and former Chairman of the Washington County Bar Foundation, a charitable organization that supports legal services for the poor, law related education and scholarships, and public information and education initiatives. Jim is also a member of the Pennsylvania Bar Association. He currently teaches a course, The Pennsylvania Court System, at Washington & Jefferson College.

He received the John L.S. Northrop Vocational Service Award of the Rotary Club of Washington and the Distinguished Service Award of the Washington County Bar Association.

Jim was one of the incorporators of the WCCF, serving as its Founding Chairman of the Board. “The idea to create the Washington County Community Foundation came from a group of dedicated men and women who wanted to see philanthropy thrive in Washington County,” Jim recalls. “I was honored to have been asked to serve as the Foundation’s first Chairman of the Board. It is an honor that I will cherish forever.”

In his honor the Board created the perpetual James H. McCune Acorn Society which recognizes professional advisors (accountants, attorneys, bankers, insurance representatives, investment and other professionals) who have helped clients achieve their charitable objectives through the WCCF. Cumulatively Society members have been instrumental in bringing charitable gifts to the Foundation of well over $5 million.

Jim and his wife, Rachel, reside in Washington and are members of the Foundation’s Family of Founders and Golden Oak Guild recognition societies.

Elaine M. Pappasergi

Elaine is a graduate of California University of Pennsylvania with a bachelor’s degree in education. She was employed at the Westmoreland Intermediate Unit for thirty-seven years. As a learning support teacher, Elaine serviced students in the Belle Vernon, Monessen, and Mt. Pleasant School Districts. She was a recipient of the Annie Sullivan Award, an award bestowed annually to recognize those who have rendered service to education. Elaine has served on the Charleroi Area School Board since 2003. While a school director, she has served as chairman of the Personnel, Curriculum, and Instruction Committee. Additionally, she is a board representative to SHASDA and Alternate Board Representative to MVCTC. During her tenure as a school director, she has attended various school board workshops, including the Pension Crisis, Superintendent and Teacher Evaluations, Pre-school and Elementary summer programs, and other relevant educational topics.

Elaine and her husband, Bruno, have resided in the Charleroi Area School District since 1979 and are active members of St. Andrew the Apostle Church, in Charleroi. Their two sons, Todd (2001) and Chad (2008) are graduates of Charleroi High School. Todd received his Juris Doctor degree from the University of Pittsburgh School of Law and is currently a practicing attorney in Washington County. Chad earned his B.S. degree in education from California University of Pennsylvania and is a Social Studies teacher servicing students in the Charleroi Area School District.

Joseph M. Piszczor

Joseph Piszczor is a Financial Advisor with Stein Wealth Advisors, a private family practice. Joe is a Certified Financial Planner™, whose clients include families, business owners, and charities. He began his practice in 2006 after graduating from Mercyhurst University.

In addition to serving his clients, Joe is passionate about serving his community. In his role as a Trustee of the Washington County Community Foundation, Joe serves as Chair of the Foundation's Investment Committee. He is a current member and former President of the Rotary Club of Washington, as well as a Rotary Zone Public Image Chair. And with an enthusiasm for Washington County's history and heritage, Joe has become deeply involved with the David Bradford House and the Whiskey Rebellion Festival.

Joe and his wife, Katelyn, reside in Houston. They enjoy cooking, gardening, and spending time with their dog, Buddy. Additionally, Joe is an avid sportsman and enjoys spending his free time outdoors.

Kurt R. Salvatori

Kurt R. Salvatori is Chief Administrative Officer of CONSOL Energy, a U.S.-based leading producer and exporter of high-Btu thermal, industrial, crossover and low-vol metallurgical coals, headquartered in Canonsburg, PA

Originally hired as a Regional Accountant at CONSOL, he was named Supervisor of Qualified Benefit Plans in 2000. In 2005 he was named Director of Human Resources for CNX Gas, a subsidiary of CONSOL, and in 2009, he became the Director of Human Resources for CONSOL. In 2011, Kurt became Vice President-Human Resources and in 2016 was promoted to Vice President-Shared Services before becoming Chief Administrative Officer in January 2017.

Kurt majored in finance/accounting at Pennsylvania State University, where he earned a bachelor's degree in finance.

Kurt serves on the Monongahela Valley Hospital Board of Directors and Board of Trustees.

Kurt is a member of the Foundation’s Golden Oak Guild recognition society.

​Harlan G. Shober Jr.

Harlan G. Shober Jr. is a former Washington County Commissioner, serving in this role from 2012 through 2019.

Previously he was a manager at AT&T for 32 years, then owned a custom home building business, Shober Homes, for 14 years. He served as a Chartiers-Houston School Director for 12 years and then as Chairman of Chartiers Township board of supervisors for 16 years.

He was President and Board Chair of the County Commissioners Association of Pennsylvania, President of Washington County Builders Association, President of Washington County Association of Township Officials, and Chairman of the finance committee of Pennsylvania State Association of Township Supervisors. He also served on the boards of United Way, Blueprints, Washington County Mental Health Advisory, and Washington Symphony Orchestra.

A six-year veteran of the Pennsylvania Army National Guard, he is a member of Houston American Legion, Greater Canonsburg Lions Club, Canonsburg Elks Lodge, Chartiers Masonic Lodge, and First United Presbyterian Church of Houston, where he is an Elder.

Dorothy F. Tecklenburg

Dorothy F. Tecklenburg is a corporate communications consultant.

Dorothy spent 5 years in China serving as an ALCOA Foundation representative, oversaw renovation of a Chinese orphanage, and for six years wrote a column, “Dispatch from China” for the Observer-Reporter (2003‐2008).

Dorothy was a television producer/director/writer, in commercial television, and her credits include Field Producer for Evening Magazine, Producer/Director for QUBE, and writer for American Movie Classics.

Dorothy has served as a Corporate Communications Consultant/ Video Producer for clients including PPG Industries, ALCOA, Universal Studios Florida, and American Express, and has also served as a creative consultant and writer for KidSoft, children’s computer magazine, and Compuserve WOW!, a children’s online service. She was a co‐creator and creative consultant for the PBS television show “Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?”.

Dorothy has authored several works, such as Bob Dorian’s Classic Movies, and co‐authored The Complete Time Traveler, and received Emmy nominations for a Boston Celtics Pre‐season Special, Evening Magazine, and “Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?,” and received a CINE Award for “Up in Smoke,” an educational video encouraging Washington County high school students not to smoke.

She was an Adjunct Professor for Waynesburg College from 1987‐2003, a corporate communications consultant, and has served as a Trustee for the International School of Beijing, and as a Board Member for the Children’s School of Washington.

Amy L. Todd

Amy earned a Bachelor’s Degree in Business Administration from California University and a Master’s Degree in Public Administration from the University of Pittsburgh.

She was an accountant with the Bentworth School District, Business Coordinator for Western Area Career & Technology Center, Business Manager for Monessen School District, Business Manager for Mount Pleasant School District, Business Manager for Carmichaels School District, and Business Administrator for the McGuffey School District. She recently started as an Accountant with the Intermediate Unit I.

She is an active member of Southwest Pennsylvania School Business Officials, Member California Area School District Board of Directors, Member Washington County EIT Executive Board, Former Chairperson, Greene County EIT Committee, Member, Intermediate Unit I Health Consortium Board, Former Member of Association of School Business Officials, Notary Public, Former Tax Collector Coal Center Borough.

She and her husband live in California with their two college-age children.

Louis E. Waller, III

Lou is the President of Waller Corporation, a general contracting company created by his father, Louis E. Waller, II in 1986. The company is based in Washington, PA, and employees roughly 75 employees.

In addition to many projects throughout the region, Waller Corporation was involved in the construction of many local projects including the Washington Intermodal Transit Facility, the Wilfred R. Cameron Wellness Center, Washington Financial's headquarters building, and currently the Pennsylvania Trolley Museum Visitor Center.

Lou graduated from Trinity High School and earned an undergraduate degree from West Virginia University and a master's degree in Business Administration from Waynesburg University.

Community is an essential part of Lou’s life, and he continues to be very active in the Washington County charitable community. He currently is the Campaign Chairman of the Annual United Way fund drive, Director of the Washington Financial Bank, and a board member of the Washington County Airport Advisory Board. In the past, Mr. Waller was the Chairman of the Washington County Drug and Alcohol Advisory Board, Chairman of the Washington County American Heart Association, Director of the American Red Cross, Director of the Washington County Habitat for Humanity, Member of the Washington Kiwanis Club, and Director of the Washington Y.M.C.A. He was also the head coach of the Canon McMillan Girls Basketball Team for two seasons.

Richard L. White, Past Chairman

Richard L. White is the retired President of Washington Federal (now Washington Financial) and is a graduate of the University of Pittsburgh.

A Founding Trustee of the WCCF, Richard served as Board Treasurer for the WCCF’s first six years of operations during which time the WCCF secured its first million dollars in charitable assets. In addition to his personal giving and other fundraising efforts, he was very instrumental in securing donated office space and financial support for the WCCF at Washington Federal for nearly 10 years. In appreciation, the WCCF presented its Decade of Service Award to Richard and Washington Financial in 2005 when celebrating its 10th anniversary.

Richard is Chairman of the Washington County Council on Economic Development. A Past President of the Washington County Habitat for Humanity, a Past President of the Ft. Cherry School Board, a Past President and current member of the Hickory Lions Club, a Past President of the Washington Area Chamber of Commerce and a Past President of the Washington Greene County Easter Seal Society. He previously served as a Trustee on the Washington Hospital Board and their Foundation, as a Director of the United Way of Washington County, as a Member of the Washington Business District Authority, as a Trustee on the Pentegra multi‐employer retirement fund Board located in White Plains, NY and as a Director of the PA Association of Community Bankers located in Harrisburg, PA. He currently serves on the Meadowcroft Advisory Board, and is a member of the Sons of the American Revolution. Richard is also an Ordained Elder of the Hickory United Presbyterian Church and a member of our James H. McCune Acorn Society.

Richard and his wife, Margaret, reside in Hickory and are members of the Foundation’s Family of Founders and Golden Oak Guild recognition societies.